Use and maintenance technology of tractor and rotary cultivator

First, the use of tractors

(a) Check each part

1. Tighten the connecting parts of each part: Although the tractor is factory tested, it will inevitably loosen the connection during the process of repeated transportation. For this purpose, various fasteners and fasteners should be tightened in time, especially the steering system, brake system, suspension, and wheels.

2. Check the liquid level: Mainly the fuel tank oil level, tank water level, transmission and rear axle lubricant oil level, and the battery electrolyte level. When it is found that the liquid level is insufficient, the liquid material should be added in time.

3. Check the oil: (1) The amount of oil in the oil pan should not be less than the underline of the oil ruler. (2) The quality of oil: If the tractor is shipped out of the factory in summer, and bought back in winter, it should be replaced with oil used in winter; vice versa. (3) The switch of the oil filter on a large tractor should be switched to the summer or winter season according to the season or the temperature. (4) In order to prevent the oil in the oil-bath type air filter oil pan from splashing out and contaminating the vehicle capacity during the transportation process, some manufacturers add it at the end of the factory and pay attention to adding the oil after buying it.

4. Listing on the household: After the new tractor is bought back. Within 3 months, you should bring your invoices such as purchase invoices, certificates of conformity, and user manuals, and go through procedures for household registration with the agricultural machinery, levy and other departments. It is an illegal act to drive an unlicensed vehicle on the road and it is punished.

(b) do a good job of the tractor.

Before the new tractor is used, it must be worn in. The running-in is an important means to extend the service life of the tractor. Because the parts are machined, they all contain different degrees of tool marks on the surface. If they are put into a large load operation without being worn, they will quickly damage the uneven surface of the parts and greatly increase the wear of the parts. Reduce tractor life. The purpose of running-in is to gradually grind and smooth the rough and uneven friction surface, obtain a relatively smooth and hard pressure surface, and also get the most suitable fit clearance. After the tractor is put into normal operation, it can withstand the load and be extended. The service life lays a good foundation.

Tractor running-in should follow the following rules:

1. Idling of the engine: After the engine is started, the engine is idled for 5 minutes, and then gradually increased to the nominal speed for air running. The idle running time of the engine should generally be about 15 minutes.

2. Run-in of hydraulic system. Start the engine and operate the lifter handle so that the suspension mechanism is raised and lowered several times. Observe whether the hydraulic system sucks the top card. Then hang the implement or weight with a weight of less than 500 kg. Operate the lifter handle at the rated engine speed. Make farm tools steadily increase and decrease not less than 50 times. If the tractor is hydraulically steered and the tractor is stationary, the engine runs at low, medium, and high speeds, steering the steering wheel to see if it is light and _____ stable.

3. Tractor idling: In the idle running process, the engine speed should be controlled at about 1500 revs/min, the speed should be changed from low to high, and finally the reverse gearing should be performed. The tractor idle running time should be about 5 hours.

4. The tractor's load running-in: Tractor load running is to bring a certain load to run, run-in principle: the load gradually increases from small to large, the speed from low to high by file. The specific operation method differs from vehicle to vehicle, and should refer to the load running-in comparison table in the instruction manual. Generally, the running-in time should be more than 50 hours. When running in, it must be strictly in accordance with the requirements of the instructions, not terrible trouble and reduce the running-in or shorten the running-in time.

5. Maintenance after running-in: after running-in, there will be some metal dust or dirt in the drive system, lubrication system and hydraulic system mixed in the oil, so it must be cleaned and replaced all the lubricating oil and hydraulic oil. The lubricant and hydraulic oil should be released when the engine is shut down and shut down. After the cleaning is completed, the new lubricant and hydraulic oil should be added as required. When replacing the lubricating oil, the respective filter should be cleaned or replaced as required. In addition, the necessary maintenance and adjustment of the tractor must also be carried out in accordance with the instructions for use.

(3) Do a good job of technical maintenance of the tractor

1. Shift technical maintenance and cumulative working time technical maintenance. Shift maintenance is carried out at the beginning and end of each shift. It mainly includes auscultating the engine for abnormalities and checking the instrument, removing dust and dirt; checking the oil sump of the engine and the oil level of the gearbox; insufficient to add; checking whether the front and rear hub nuts are loose , Check and tighten the bolts and nuts of the brakes, steering gear and other key parts; check the air filter to remove dust; add grease to each lubrication point according to the lubrication table; squeeze out all the mud and water until the cleaning. Grease overflow; Check the tank, fuel tank level, lack of time should be added. The accumulative working time technical maintenance is divided into multiple levels. After reaching a certain working time, this level of maintenance will be carried out and the maintenance items will be carried out according to the requirements of the tractor instructions.

2. Use clean oil. The fuel must be purchased at a reputable gas station to meet the national standards for diesel fuel. Diesel can be used after 24 hours of sedimentation. The sedimentation tank should be cleaned frequently. In the summer, diesel No. 0 is used, and in the winter, diesel Nos. -10, -20 or -35 should be replaced according to the temperature change. Lubricating oil and hydraulic oil must be filled with plates and grades in compliance with the regulations. The hydraulic oil for transmission and hydraulic use must be precipitated for at least 48 hours before being used. Diesel engine oils of different brands and different manufacturers are forbidden to be mixed.

3. Do a good job of maintaining the tractor storage period. Farmland operations are seasonal and after a working season, tractors often have to store for a long time. Doing maintenance during storage is extremely important for maintaining a good state of technology. After the end of the work season, it is necessary to remove the engine oil from the heat engine, replace the engine oil, turn off the engine with a small throttle for a few minutes, fill the fuel tank with diesel, clean and maintain the air filter, and release the cooling water in winter. Place all the joysticks in the neutral position, adjust the tractor's front wheels and suspension rods to the lowest position; remove the batteries and put them in a room where the ventilation and light are not lower than 10°C. Check once a month if necessary. To supplement the charge; put the front and rear axles of the tractor up to make the tires slightly off the ground and let the tire air go away. In addition, according to the requirements of the tractor's instructions, check and adjustment of the valve clearance, fuel supply time, clutch stroke, etc. should be done so that the tractor is always in good technical condition.

Second, the correct use of rotary cultivator

1. Blade installation. (1) Routine operations. The left and right machete cross-mounted on the entire knife shaft. This arrangement method is flat after cultivation and suitable for flat work. (2) Rotary tillage and trenching operations. Starting from the middle of the cutter shaft, turn the left machetes fully to the left and install the right machetes to the right, with one exception at each end; install one piece of left and right blades in the middle of the knife holder to make the soil pieces thrown in the groove. Side, forming a shallow ditch. (3) Plowing hoeing operations. Starting from the middle of the cutter shaft, the left machete is fully mounted to the left, and the left machete is installed to the right. Each blade of the left and right blades is mounted on the middle blade holder. When the machine crosses the ditch, the soil is thrown into the ditch. Ditching effect.

2. Adjust before cultivator tillage. Before the tractor starts, the rotary cultivator clutch handle should be set to the disengaged position. (1) Horizontal adjustment. Lower the rotavator and bring the tip of the knife close to the ground to see if the left and right tip heights are the same. If not, adjust the right suspension bar so that the cultivator is level to the left and right to ensure the same depth. (2) Level adjustment before and after. When the required depth is required, see if the propeller shaft is horizontal or not, and if the angle is the same, or if the gearbox is horizontal, use the pull-rod to adjust the front and rear levels to ensure that the propeller shaft works well. (3) Lift height adjustment. In order to ensure that the tilt angle of the drive shaft does not exceed 25 degrees, the rotary cultivator should not be raised too high. When working in the field, it is only necessary to raise the tool tip to 20 cm from the ground, and tighten the limit with a screw on the position adjustment handle. ensure safety.

3. The choice of field farming routes. (1) Flat work. In order to reduce the time of open land, adopt the plot cultivation method, and the width of the plot should be as close as possible to an integer multiple of the ploughing width to reduce the recultivation. (2) Ditching. Generally from the middle of the field to the outside rotation, we must pay attention to straight, the head of the arable land is the same as the flat crop, and finally use the person and the livestock to assist in the opening of the land.

4. Rotary tiller operation. (1) Start. When the rotavator is raised, engage the power output shaft, hang up the work block, slowly loosen the clutch pedal, slowly increase the throttle, and after the rotary cultivator reaches the predetermined speed, operate the hydraulic lifting handle to slow the rotary cultivator Lower, so that the rotary knife gradually into the soil, then increase the throttle, until the normal cultivation. (2) Turning and turning back. The rotary cultivator must be raised and cannot continue operation. When the power is not cut off, the rotary cultivator must not be lifted too high. The transmission angle at both ends of the universal joint must not exceed 30 degrees, and the engine speed should be properly reduced. When transferring the land or walking long distances, the power of the rototiller should be cut off and locked after it is raised to the highest position.

5. Farming. When the rotary cultivator is in operation, the tractor wheel should walk on the uncultivated land so as not to compact the cultivated land. Therefore, the tractor wheelbase needs to be adjusted so that the wheels are located in the rotary cultivator work range. Pay attention to the method of walking during operation to prevent the other tractor from compacting the cultivated land. The speed of advancement during farming should be 2–3 km/h in dry fields, and 5–7 km/h in lands that have been ploughed or ploughed. Farming in paddy fields can be faster. Remember that the speed cannot be too high to prevent the tractor from being overloaded and damaging the PTO shaft.

6. Maintenance. (1) Class maintenance: Under normal circumstances, class maintenance should be performed after each shift. Contents include removing dirt and weeds from the blades, checking for defects such as bolts, split pins, etc., and replacing them if necessary; adding grease to each lubricating point and filling the joints with butter to prevent Worn out. (2) Quarterly maintenance: After completion of each operation quarter, quarterly maintenance should be carried out. The contents include: complete removal of dust and oil on the equipment; thorough replacement of lubricants and greases; check blade for excessive wear and replace if necessary; Check if there are any deformations such as hoods, pallets, etc., and if necessary, restore the original shape or renew them; inspect the appearance of the implements, make up the paint, and mortise and splined shafts shall be oiled and rust proof; if not used for a long time, wheeled tractors The supporting rotary cultivator shall be placed on a level ground and shall not be hung on the tractor.

7. Other precautions. (1) It is forbidden to start directly under the condition that the rotary tiller enters the soil (2) It is forbidden to rapidly descend the rotary tiller to prevent the rotary tillage knife and related parts from being damaged. (3) When the rotary cultivator is in operation, it is forbidden to approach the rotating parts, and no person behind the rotary cultivator is allowed to prevent the blades from throwing injuries. (4) When checking the rotary cultivator, power must be cut off. When replacing rotating parts such as blades, the tractor must be turned off. (5) In operation, if the cutter shaft is wrapped around too much grass, it should be stopped in time to avoid increasing the load of the implement. (6) When rotating tillage, the tractor and the suspended part are not allowed to take people to prevent accidental injury by the rotary cultivator.

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