Astragalus Breeding Technology

Chapter I General Situation of Astragalus Breeding Section 1: Current Status of Astragalus Breeding

The breeding of Astragalus is a new breeding industry. For a long time, due to the lack of understanding of the living habits of Astragalus, Astragalus cultivation has always been regarded as a restricted area of ​​the breeding industry. With the constant understanding of the habits of jaundice in recent years, the cost of investment in breeding research has been increasing, and the empirical technology has gradually matured. Due to the great difference between aquaculture and traditional fish culture methods, it is important to understand the habits of Astragalus before farming, and carry out work in an orderly manner.
When the market demand is high around the Spring Festival each year and the wild jaundice is difficult to capture, the prices are rising. For example, in October 2009, the wholesale price of EC goods was 20 yuan per kilogram. In December 2009 and December 2009, the wholesale price of EC has risen to over 50 yuan per kilogram. The reason for the huge seasonal difference is because the gap between market supply and demand is too high. Large, it is profitable to carry out artificial breeding for this purpose.
Affected by factors such as weather and temperature, the artificial breeding period of Astragalus is generally around 3-5 months. The effect of long-term weight gain during the breeding period is obvious and the benefit is high. The short breeding period will directly affect the breeding efficiency. If the normal feeding time is less than 2 Month, the efficiency is even worse. However, if the seedling season is too early, due to temperature instability and other reasons, it is easy to cause the seedlings to become ill and improper treatment is not worth the candle.
Understand its ecological habits, according to its characteristics to create a suitable environment for its life and then carry out astragalus cultivation will be very smooth. During normal breeding period, one person can manage 200 cages. Because of the great difference between aquaculture and other traditional fish farming methods, many people are in contact with the industry for the first time. Therefore, only after learning can they avoid detours or detours. Except for the labor intensity of the preparatory work such as pile-hanging cages and water weeds, etc., the rest of the time will be easier. During the normal feeding period, the time for one person to manage 200 cages per day will not exceed 3 hours. Pay attention to the water level in the pond and check if the cage is bitten by a mouse. There is almost no need to manage it. Wait for the price to be available for sale.

Section II: The habit of Huang Xie

Before the official development of Astragalus cultivation, first understand the habit of Astragalus.
One: thermophilic, the most suitable water temperature for growth is 15-30 degrees, in this temperature range feeding normal growth, below or above this temperature range is not conducive to growth (solution: water hyacinth can solve the temperature is too high The problem is that there will be some gaps in the temperature of the actual artificial breeding process. If the gap is not large, there will be no significant effect.
II: Hibernation is one of the habitat characteristics of the yellow eel, and we should create conditions as far as possible to meet the habits of living in a dark environment. (Solution: Water hyacinth and other aquatic plants are the solution to the problem of strong light. Effective measures).
Three: Hi shallow water, yellow quail generally inhabit shallow water areas, if the temperature is too high or exercise, it must be based on breathing oxygen in the air, and because the oysters do not have the same fish licking structure, swimming is very consuming, not conducive to Growing, if the water level is too deep, it is generally inhabited by water grass within an area within 30 cm from the water surface (solution: water weeding is the most effective measure).
Four: There is a habit of eating too much food. This occurs when there is too little food, extreme hunger, and the gap between the individual size of the crickets is too great. (Solution: Due to the size of the larvae when they are released, and the feed is supplied. Adequate, generally in the case of artificial breeding will not occur, it will not affect the breeding efficiency).
Five: In the wild state, the food intake is small and the growth is slow. In the wild state, they often suffer from hunger and full meal. The long-term food does not form a small amount of food, and the food is digested slowly. Therefore, the artificial breeding must firstly carry out fortification and taming, and change the jaundice. Eating habits, so that the amount of food to increase to more than 10% of their own weight, after 4-5 months of feeding the net weight gain of up to 2-4 times (solution: strengthen the domestication at the beginning of the seedlings).
Sixth: The spawning amount is small. Because of the special nature of the sexual reversal of the astragalus, the first half of the sex is female, making the females have very small individuals and relatively large sized eggs. Therefore, the amount of spawning of the astragalus is very small. As well as various reasons such as excessively high density and non-reproduction, long seedling breeding cycle length, etc., the breeding cost of Scutellaria japonica seedlings is high, and the artificially-producing Sorghum seedlings are expensive and have a small quantity, and they are far from meeting the needs of breeding seedlings. (Solution method: In the area where there is a lot of jaundice, the price of wild yellow pods in spring, summer and autumn is very cheap, and the quantity is huge. At present, there is no need to worry about the source of seedlings.)
VII: Not resistant to drug, Astragalus is a fish. Like all breeding industries, disease prevention must be carried out in the process of large-scale breeding. Huangqi is also an inscale fish. Because of lack of protection of scales, Particularly sensitive, in the breeding process, it is necessary to use drugs to effectively prevent and treat pests and diseases of the jaundice, and also to avoid the drugs causing phytotoxicity to the jaundice. Therefore, the selection of jaundice drugs must be targeted, and it is necessary to have no stimulation and harm to the jaundice. Can effectively prevent and treat diseases.
According to the above physiological characteristics of Astragalus, there will be targeted detailed introduction.
Section 3: Pond and Water Quality Requirements

The pond requires easy management, with no silt or silt at the bottom of the pond, strong water retention capacity, stable water level, no leakage, convenient drainage and drainage, and shrubs and weeds on dams (preventing Tibetan and other predators). The water quality requirements are non-polluting. Generally, the water for fish farming can be used. It cannot be too fat.

Section IV: Preparation

Before the cultivation, some preparatory work must be done first, such as contacting some fishmongers or fishermen, linking the low-priced small wild fish, tame-breeding aquaculture, and fish pond cleaning.

Section V: Farming

Commonly used forms of aquaculture include cage culture, cement pond culture, and paddy field purse seine culture, and various factors such as comprehensive cost and convenience of management. The cost of cage culture is low, and management is convenient. It is the preferred culture method. The technical points of cage culture are highlighted here.
Chapter II Culture Costs Astragalus membranaceus cultivation has a higher input compared to other common fish cultures. The farming equipment includes: boats for feeding and inspection, large-diameter three-phase water pumps for drainage, mounted rakes, buckets, and skeins for minced fish. Meat machine, freezer (preferably large-capacity full-freezer without fresh-keeping room), ponds, 8-12 wire hanging cages, cages, seedlings, bait fish, feed, drugs, miscellaneous, The underlined part of the article belongs to the item input and can be reused for many years.

third chapter:
The specific operation of breeding The first section: The placement of fixed cages

Net cages generally do not flee, and the larger the mesh, the better, facilitating the exchange of water bodies inside and outside the tank. The fixed cages are suitable for installation in stable water ponds. In order to maintain the pond's fresh water quality, the ponds can be placed in cages. The quantity can generally follow this principle: the ponds placed in the pond occupy about 1/3 of the total surface of the pond (a pond of about 660 square meters can accommodate 30 to 40 cages of 6 square meters), and the water quality is good for a pond with convenient drainage. Can put more, otherwise you should control the number of cages placed. Water bodies outside the cages can also be used as much as possible to raise fish. The best fry species to be used are white mullet and flower squid (commonly known as puffhead fish). Other bottom fish such as carp carp are kept as far as possible so as not to disturb the water body. The density of the fry per acre of water is: about 70 caterpillars per half a catty fish and 1000 fish prills each, because these two fish only feed on the plankton bloomed from the excrement of jaundice in the water, and do not need to be fed separately. It can grow well, and it can purify the water.
The edge of the pond should be at least 2 meters away, to facilitate the circulation of water, but also to avoid predators as much as possible, generally a row of cages as a group, the distance between the group and the group is not less than 2 meters to facilitate the management of the ship and The exchange of water inside and outside the box, the size of the 6 square net box is 2 meters wide and 3 meters long, and the width between the two piles of the general hanging net box is 2.1 meters, which is convenient for the tension of the cage, and the distance of the vertical pile is every Two boxes play a pair of large piles. If the pile is too high, you can stand on special high stools such as mason painting. After the piles are played, pull the 8th wire. The wire must be pulled tight. Between the piles, use wood sticks to prevent it from falling after the cage is hung up. After the height is suspended from the cage, the distance from the bottom of the middle to the ground is at least 30 cm. The height of the wire must be level. After adding water, the water depth of all the cages can be kept the same. After the wire is pulled, the cages are tightened with small zigzags in turn. According to the height of the cage, the bottom of the box is pulled to fix the bottom corner of the cage. , prevent cages from getting full after the cage After the cage is raised, the cage can be filled with water. The depth of the water is based on the cage. For example, a cage of 1.2 meters, 60 centimeters below the water surface, 60 centimeters above the water surface, and the total water depth must be maintained at 1.2 meters. Above, to prevent the water temperature from being too high due to the small water body in summer, the most important prerequisite for piling and hanging cages is that they must be firm.
After the cages are hung up, they can be planted in April and May. The selection of aquatic plants is generally water hyacinth, and water can also be used for peanuts. Which kind of grass can be used according to local conditions, the water hyacinth is placed in the cage and the roots must be immersed. The water can, as much as possible, generally 5 days after the plants can stand upright.
Thorough clearing of the pond: 50 kilograms of quicklime per acre of water is poured evenly over the surface of the aquarium. The cage should also be spilled, but not too much. The quicklime must be a block of ash that is not damp and cannot be powdered hydrated lime. If it is a newly-digging pond, it is better to use the drug clear pond. The method is: 10 ml of each 6 square net cage for special insecticide, evenly splashing the water to kill the water and other predator organisms in the water of the cage. It can kill the fish eggs in the cage and other creatures that the yellow cricket eats. On the second day, use 7 ml of special disinfection agent for each cage to dilute the water evenly. After each use of disinfectant, pour out a cage and then rinse the plants with clean water to prevent the drug from causing phytotoxicity to aquatic plants. After 10 days, you can Received seedlings.
Section II: Placement of floating cages If the pond's water level is not stable, and fixed cages cannot be installed, floating cages can be set. The advantage of floating cages is that they do not need to pay too much attention to changes in the water level, and their requirements for water areas are not high. As long as there are no large stormy lakes or reservoirs that can be installed, installing floating cages will not escape after being bitten by the mouse in autumn and winter cages, because the holes the mouse bites are generally above the water surface, due to the cages entering the water. The depth is fixed. If it is not man-made deliberately pressing, the hole will always be in a fixed position above the surface of the water. The Yellow Scorpion cannot escape from the mouse hole above the water. Only after the hole is flooded will Huang Sui be able to Extensive escape, this situation is more common in fixed cage culture, because the fixed cage is fixed, and the depth of the cage into the water will often change with each new water injection, the cage is bitten by the mouse If the hole is not carefully checked before adding water to the pond, if you don't care about the hole, you will drown it into the water. In this case, serious losses will occur. After the season indigestion, every time before filling the new water should check there are no holes, so that timely with a rope or wire lashing good plus water.
The installation of floating cages is relatively complicated and the cost is relatively high. Since there are no fixed piles, cages and shelves are suspended on the water surface. To avoid being overturned by strong winds, two rows of cages are usually juxtaposed to form a group, increasing the surface area. Resistance to strong winds.
First, use a large-diameter bamboo to place a flat shelf. When connecting, use a long nail to fasten it first. Then use a wire to tie it tightly. Note that the head of the wire should be hidden inside to prevent the net box from falling. The shelf is made of bamboo. The number of consecutive Nagata characters and field characters depends on the number of cages. One field character can be placed in four cages, and this is calculated. Since the cage is 2m 3m, each square in the field is 2m wide and 3m wide.
After the scaffolding is set up, a 10-mm-diameter hole is drilled in every 4 meters long of three bamboos side-by-side in a vertical row, and a steel bar with a diameter of 10 mm and a length of 78 cm is installed. The processing method of the steel bar is as follows: the lower part of the steel bar is welded with a 10 mm screw that can pass through the hole in the bamboo and can be tightened with a nut. The welding of the screw and the bar must be firm, and a small bifurcation is welded at the top to facilitate the pulling of the wire. Tighten the steel bar onto the bamboo as a point of support for the wire and the hanging cage. The height of the bar on the bamboo must be 75 cm. It should not be too low.
After all the steel bars are installed, the 12th iron wire is wound around each steel bar and must be tightened to prevent it from falling after being placed in the cage.
After pulling the wire, tie a small bamboo raft or small wooden stick between the three side-by-side steel bars to strengthen the tension.
Because the floating cage has no fixed point, in order to prevent the cage from being easily managed by the movement of the wind blown everywhere, the positioning pile must be played. The role of the positioning pile is to prevent the floating rack from being disassembled after the floating position is moved. The pontoon is directly connected, only piling on both sides and both sides of the bamboo of the pontoon, leaving a little distance to facilitate the lifting and lowering of the pontoon. The number of positioning piles depends on the length of the pontoons, but not too little to enhance the wind resistance. .
After the main body of the buoy is completed, the cage can be placed on the wire. When watering the grass, it should be noted that because the lower part of the cage is not fixed with a rope, the water must be used to water hyacinth, and must be put enough, otherwise the cage will be blown like a red flag when the wind is strong, as long as the water is full. On the line, other breeding management methods are the same as those for fixed cages.

Section III: How to Acquire the Seedling

These are all the preliminary preparations for aquaculture. The work during this period of time is the most important. The source of the wild seedlings is very complicated. I hope all the friends who first raised them must master the most basic knowledge. It is relatively safe to use the method of cage trapping to capture the yellow crickets. I hope that the following articles will be memorized and that most of you will succeed.
Acquisitions are generally carried out by cages, hand-catch, and catcher. The pre-acquisition farmers can contact the farmer households that have taken them and offer relatively favorable prices. The condition is that the seedlings must be properly kept. The custody method is: The buckets must be filled with buckets, and some of the lake water or ditch water in the buckets are all OK. Less is not relevant. The catchers bring water to bring home the yellow crickets and they must also be stored in lake or pond water. . Due to the increase in labor intensity, it is worthwhile to give a slightly higher price. Try to contact as many as possible. Get a unified purchase every morning. You must bring water to transport you back. You don't need too much water. Every cage needs to be To fill up, although it is a bit troublesome to buy, it is very effective, the survival rate is also high, and the price is cheaper than the purchase from the hawker.
Another method is: to contact the market in townships or towns and cities to buy hawkers specializing in the market, give a relatively favorable price, as long as the seedlings are kept as required, even if the price per jin higher than the purchase price of 1-2 yuan is also worth of. The condition is to require catchers and farmers to properly store the collected jaundice.
Condition 1: The hawker must collect and collect the seedlings from the morning of the morning in person at the farmer's home where Huang Biao has been captured.
Condition 2: In the process of transportation and storage, lake water or river water must be used. Absolutely no well water spring or tap water is needed. The most important thing is to pay attention to the temperature difference and should not exceed 5 degrees. In order to avoid flu jaundice. Transport as much as possible with water, can not transport without water, so as not to fever.
Condition 3: Do not insist on catching or storing for too long.

Section IV: How to Check the Quality of Scutellariae

Check the quality of seedlings can start from the following aspects.
One: Look at the body surface. If the anus or part of the body surface of the acquired anus or the anus is swollen, red, or congested, then it is improper to store and transport the seedlings.
Two: Look at the injury: Any part of the body is injured, especially the head, then try to remove the injury.
Third, look at the action, first put part of the seedlings into the water, the depth of the immersion jaundice more than 10 cm is better, healthy jaundice will all sink into the water, even if the exhale will occasionally sink.
The healthy jaundice is lively and active, it is not easy to grasp by hand, only the inverted tail can be seen in the water, and the heads are interlaced and buried in the deepest part of the water. In a word, the yellow cricket was put in the water and only saw the tail and could not see the head. If Astragalus has its head out of the water for a long time, or if it is weak, and it is a lot of hands, it is likely that it has been stored for a long time or it has been stored improperly and it is ill or caught by drugs. If only part of the Astragalus has unhealthy symptoms, try to Remove the abnormal behavior. In this way, the survival rate can be guaranteed. In the process of receiving seedlings, death is unavoidable. If the survival rate is above 95%, the acquisition is very successful.

Section V: Date of seedling release

For prudent reasons, first-timers usually put their seedlings after June 25th of each year. At this time, the temperature is basically stable at 30 degrees or more, and the air temperature and water temperature in the sunny morning are basically the same, so that it is possible to avoid jaundice as much as possible. If the water is too long, it will produce a temperature difference and catch a cold. In June, the seedlings can also be cultured for more than 4 months. After the second year's mature technology, they can be advanced to May 20 or so to extend the time for food consumption, which can significantly increase economic benefits.

Section VI: How to put seedlings

During the seedling stage, more attention should be paid to the weather conditions. When the seedlings are released, the weather must be selected the next day of continuous sunny days. After the seedlings are shipped home in the morning, they should be placed in a cool place. The quality of the seedlings should be checked first, and then graded. Medium and small grade 3, the method is: Take the smallest and largest specifications separately, each in a separate barrel, leaving the medium-sized specifications. After a good portion, the weight of a net cage is required to be weighed in a plastic bucket (about a net of 3 kg for a cage in the cage, and 15-18 kg for a 6 square net. The principle is: the seedling date is earlier Put less, put the seedlings later and put them in. Put the seedlings in small size and size, and put the specifications mostly in order to ensure a certain amount of output), put it directly on the grass in the cage, let it swim, and follow this operation until Finally, the medium-sized ones were grouped into one cage, the large-sized ones were grouped into one cage, the smallest ones were grouped into one cage, and the three levels were used. The movements should be as fast as possible to reduce the time required for the waterlogging of the yellow cockroaches. The best 30-70 grams, the seedlings of this specification grow faster, the survival rate is relatively high.

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