The genus Perennial deciduous vines of the genus Vitis are the European and Asian species of the genus. They are native to the United States. They are also known as seedless Thomsons. They have large ears, single ear weight, large grains, single fruit weight, thin skin, green color, and crisp meat. , sweet and delicious, non-nuclear, storage and transportation characteristics, is the best quality in fresh grapes, with the United States known as the king of fresh food. In the cultivation and management of field crops, the following technical links must be captured to obtain high quality, high yield, and high efficiency.
First, the grape's requirements for environmental conditions
The temperature requirements of various grape groups are different at each stage of growth. After falling leaves at 0-5Â°C, natural dormancy occurs after about one month; the average temperature in early spring is more than 10Â°C. Hybrids with Europe and the United States began to sprout. As the temperature rises, the sprouted shoots grow faster. The optimum temperature for shoot growth and flower bud differentiation is 25-32Â°C. Higher daytime temperatures and lower nighttime temperatures can ensure good fruit growth and maturation. .
Grapes are hi-light plants and have a high demand for light. The length of light has a great influence on grape growth, yield and quality. When there is insufficient illumination, the growth of the shoots is thin, the leaves are thin, the leaves are light, the ear is small, the fruit drop is more, the yield is low, the quality is poor, and the winter buds are poorly differentiated. Therefore, when building a park, it is required to select a place with good lighting, and pay attention to improving the ventilation and light transmission conditions of the rack. At the same time, the correct design direction, row spacing, and the use of reasonable pruning techniques should be adopted.
In the early spring budding stage, shoot growth stage and young fruit expansion stage, sufficient water supply is required to make the soil moisture content about 70%. Before and after the berry ripening stage, the soil moisture content is about 60%.
The adaptability of the grapes to the soil is strong. In addition to the swamps and heavy saline-alkali soils that do not adapt to the growth, all other types of soil can be planted, and fertile sandy loam is most suitable.
Second, grape pollution-free cultivation technology improvement and improvement
1. Carefully choose the ground, deep plowing
Select a larger area, drought irrigation, energy can drain, soil fertility and no pollution, ventilation, good lighting conditions. Deeply turning the land to loosen the soil, aeration, and good water permeability.
2. Apply base fertilizer
About 150 tons of mature farmyard fertilizer and 3750 kg of superphosphate are mixed in each planting ditch and mix well.
3. Adopt water saving technology
In the park, all drip irrigation, combined with buckled film, and integrated soil saving technology on the film, can save 60% to 70% of water, and can keep the soil loose, not compacted, and not long grass. The combination of drip irrigation and fertilization can ensure timely and appropriate fertilization of grapes, ensuring high efficiency and saving labor.
4. Choose the main varieties
There are many grape varieties with different quality. Through experiments, we selected green cultivars with early maturity, strong tree vigor, and good commercial quality as the main cultivars. Through scientific management, they can be listed before the May 1st Golden Week, which is a season of low season for fruits and high consumption. Significant.
5. Reasonable close planting
Proper close planting can increase the utilization of light energy and increase the yield.
Apply 20% lime nitrogen solution to the branches in the middle and late January of each year, and buckle the arch shed to germinate in advance.
7. Reasonable pruning and thinning
With a single main ranch, each tree leaves 5-6 branches and 4 bunches of fruit. The control quality of each bunch of fruit is within the range of 500-700 grams, and the yield per mu is controlled within the range of 2200-2500 kg.
8. Fruit processing
Grapes treated with gibberellin during flowering period can increase fruit size, improve quality, and increase yield.
The timely bagging of grapes can avoid scratches, sunburns, and infestation of pathogens, as well as the destruction of insects and birds and the direct spraying of pesticide residues.
10. Pest control
(1) Establish a regular forecast and forecast system for field pests and diseases, timely investigate the occurrence of pests and diseases, and carefully record records to find out the hazards, achieve early prevention, reduce the use of pesticides, use biological control, physical control and chemical control. Combining comprehensive prevention and control measures, do a good job of pollution-free grape production.
(2) Biological control
Clean the pasture, remove weeds and reduce intermediate hosts; control soil moisture, maintain good tree vigor, and increase resistance to diseases and insect pests; use adequately composted compost to prevent unfinished pests, grasses, etc., to reduce disease Insects and weeds; improved soil, reasonable application of inorganic fertilizers, increased application of organic fertilizers, in particular the application of potash and trace elements, robust plants, improve resistance, control the secondary shoots, improve ventilation conditions in the field, reduce disease occurrence.
(3) Physical control
Use insecticidal lamps to effectively kill common pests such as moths and chafers.
(4) Drug control
After the pruning each year, spraying the Beautite sulfur mixture on the shoots to prevent the grape powdery mildew and the blackpox disease. In mid-March, the spray was sprayed twice with 2000 times to control the damage of young shoots and young leaves. Reduce the spread of viral diseases; spray 200 times Bordeaux fluid 200 times in young fruit period to prevent and control blackpox, downy mildew, anthrax, etc.; grape can not be sprayed 20 days before maturation; try not to use chemical synthesis For pesticides with residual toxicity, the time and concentration for applying pesticides are the best for prevention and control effects, but residual drugs must be below the pollution-free standard.
11. timely harvest
In the bright color of the fruit, the ratio of sugar to acid is suitable, and the taste is good, ie about 80% of maturity can be harvested.
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