In the solar greenhouse, the winter gourd is sown in mid-October and will be available on New Year's Day. Long growing period, good efficiency. Its cultivation techniques are as follows:
First, the selection of breeding seedlings generally choose disease-resistant, low-temperature, high-yield and high-quality varieties such as winter crown F1, Cuiying 101, the United States Jasper, early Qing Dynasty generation. Use 300-400 grams per acre. Treated seeds are planted on a nursery in a solar greenhouse. Seedlings are maintained at 28-30Â°C during the day and 16-20Â°C at night. When 70% of the seedlings begin to unearth, they must remove the mulch in time, strengthen the ventilation, reduce the temperature of the shed, and prevent the seedlings from growing in length. The shelf temperature should be controlled at about 25Â°C during this period. When the two cotyledons leave the ground to continue to increase ventilation and even remove the entire film, the shelf temperature is appropriate to about 20 Â°C, when the first true leaf flattened, the hypocotyl height has been basically shaped, this period can increase the temperature, See more sunlight, promote rapid growth of seedlings.
Second, ridging colonization When the seedlings 3 leaves 1 heart, seedling age 25 to 30 days can be planted. 3 to 4 days before planting, appropriate watering should be performed according to soil moisture. When the soil surface is slightly dry, the ridges will be ridged. The ridge width is 80 cm and the ridge height is 15-20 cm. During the planting period, part of the grass curtains were covered with shade, and the plants were planted in wide and narrow rows, with one ridge and two rows, 80 cm in small rows, and 100 cm in large rows. The ridges were finely leveled, and dark ridges were opened on the ridges. The dark grooves were 10 cm deep. 15 cm wide. According to the planting distance of 50 centimeters, the planting hole is planted, 250 to 500 milliliters of seedling water is poured per hole, and then the seedlings are taken from the nutrient bowl (maintaining the nutrient soil is intact) and planted in the hole, and the seedlings are protected at 1600 to 2000 plants/mu.
Third, management after planting
1. Pre-management: Immediately after planting, pour a large amount of water and pour enough water to make it take root quickly. Immediately after the water infiltration, we must remove the loose soil and improve the soil permeability. We should keep a deep cultivator away from the seedlings. Many times of cultivator can control the seedlings to grow long, and flower buds differentiate and enrich. In combination with cultivators, the ridges are refurbished and fully covered with a 2 m wide, 0.006 mm thick mulch.
2. Hang the cranberry: When the plant has 8 leaves, carry the vine and tie the vine. When the pruning grows weak, it is the first to hang the vine, and the strong growth is slow after l~3 days to hang the vines, so that the plant height is the same and the shade is not blocked. When hanging vines and vines, the lateral buds formed on the main vine are promptly removed.
3. Fallen vines: When the melon vines are high, the harvesting of the lower fruits must be promptly accompanied by the vines so that the plants and leaves are evenly distributed. When falling, remove the old leaves, yellow leaves and pests. When removing the old yellow leaves, the wound should be kept away from the main vine to prevent the pathogen from infecting the wound.
4. Fertilizer and water management: Before covering the membrane and harvesting the root melon, it is generally not necessary to top-dress with water. This stage lacks fertilizer and can be sprayed with foliar fertilizer. After the first melon is harvested, the first water can be poured. Do not allow the water to flow onto the mulch. Follow the water to top up a small amount of fertilizer, mainly nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium fertilizers, each time about 30 kg. Bio-fertilizer can be applied in a more appropriate manner. The second watering is generally carried out about 15 days after the first watering. Since continuous harvesting consumes large amounts of nutrients, the amount of topdressing should be increased during this watering. 30 kilograms. In the deep winter season, the number of waterings should be reduced so that no drought or water is poured. In the early spring season, it is poured every 5 to 7 days. Each time watering is added to the ternary compound fertilizer. After entering the month of May, the amount of watering increased again, which can play a cooling role. In addition, foliar fertilizer can be sprayed on each spray.
5. Temperature control: After the seedlings are seeded, the seedlings should be ventilated as little as possible, confined to raise the temperature, and promote the early rooting of the seedlings and early seedlings. The temperature is maintained at 25 to 30Â°C during the day and 18 to 20Â°C at night. When the temperature exceeds 30Â°C, the top window is opened for small ventilation. After daytime sowing, the temperature was kept at 20-25Â°C and 12-15Â°C at night to promote root development, female flower differentiation, and early melon growth. After sitting in the melon, the regulating temperature is 22 to 26Â°C during the day and 15 to 18Â°C â€‹â€‹at the night, and must not be lower than 10Â°C to increase the temperature difference between day and night, accumulate nutrients, and promote fruit enlargement. The temperature control is mainly to expatiate on time, timely ventilation and so on. During the winter season, the sun is used to increase the temperature during the day and the cover is warmed up at night. In the morning, the grass and dust on the shed film are wiped in time to increase the light transmittance and increase the temperature.
6. Loquat flowers and fruits: Due to the low temperature in winter and spring seasons, artificial pollination or hormone treatment such as with rhododendron can be used to ensure sitting cucumbers. The method was to remove the male flowers that were open on the day from the 9th to the 10th, remove the corolla, and apply artificial pollination on the stigma of the female flowers, or smear the female stigmas and squash handles with a concentration of 20-30 mg/kg 2.4-D. For the prevention of gray mold, 0.1% of 50% Sulfonate wettable powder can be added to the sophora solution.
IV. Pest Control
1. Insect pests: The main pests of courgettes are aphids, whitefly, and spotted fly.
Physical control: Use yellow trapping board for physical control, 20-30 cm yellow plates 30-40 pieces per acre.
Chemical control: Aphid use 10% imidacloprid wettable powder 1500 times, or 2.5% deltamethrin EC 1500 times spray control, spray attention to the north leaf evenly sprayed. In cloudy snow weather, 400-500 grams per mu were piled and ignited for control. Whitefly was sprayed with 10% imidacloprid WP 1500 times, or 25% AKT water dispersion granules 2500 times. Liriomyza was sprayed with a spray of 3000-4000 times of 1.8% abamectin EC.
2. Disease prevention and control: Gray mold in the early onset of the use of 40% Shijiale EC 800 ~ 1000 times, or 25% gray mold WP 600 ~ 800 times the liquid, or 6.5% per million grams of moldewing dust spray per acre powder. Downy mildew can be used with 55% chlorothalonil aerosol per acre dosage of about 300 grams, or 75% chlorothalonil wettable powder 600 times, or 72.2% primo water 800 times, or 58% metalaxyl Manganese zinc wettable powder 500 times spray control, the above agents should be used interchangeably. Powdery mildew was sprayed with 20% Tricine cream 2000 times, or 70% Thiophanate WP 1000 times.
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